Weathering The process that breaks down rock and other substances on the Earth's surface. Heat, cold, water, ice, oxygen, and carbon dioxide all contribute to weathering.
Mechanical weathering - when rock is physically broken down into smaller rocks. Causes include: freezing & thawing, release of pressure, plant growth, action of animals, and abrasion.
Chemical weathering - the breakdown of rock through chemical changes. Causes include: the action of water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, living organisms & acid rain.
Rate of weathering - Two most important factors include type of rock & climate
Erosion The removal of rack particles by wind, water, ice, or gravity.

Weathering & Erosion Video (21 min)

Surface Features using maps

Topography - the shape of the land including the area's elevation, relief, and landforms
Elevation - the height above sea level on the Earth's surface
Relief - the difference in elevation between the highest and lowest parts of an area
Landforms - a feature of topography, such as a hill or valley, formed by the processes that shape the Earth's surface.

Three main types of landforms

Plains - nearly flat of gently rolling land with low relief. Elevation varies.
Mountains - landforms with high elevation and high relief
Plateaus - landforms with high elevation and a more or less level surface, low relief

How are landforms represented on flat maps?
How to read Contour Maps
Matching Contour maps
Mapping Topics
How to read Topographic Maps
Contour Line Basics
Map Skills